Carbon 14 dating of the dead sea scrolls
The texts are most commonly made of animal skins, but also papyrus and one of copper.
Most of the texts are written in Hebrew and Aramaic, with a few in Greek.
Then, one year later, against tremendous odds, the Jewish people return to their homeland as a formal nation for the first time since 70 AD, fulfilling a number of major historical prophecies.
The laboratory is supported by the National Science Foundation.
Now identified among the scrolls are 19 fragments of Isaiah, 25 fragments of Deuteronomy and 30 fragments of the Psalms.
The virtually intact "Isaiah Scroll", which contains some of the most dramatic Messianic prophecy, is 1,000 years older than any previously known manuscript of Isaiah. Many crucial Messianic manuscripts (such as Psalm 22, Isaiah 53 and Isaiah 61) date to at least 100 BC.
The version of the text is generally in agreement with the Masoretic or traditional version codified in medieval codices, such as the Aleppo Codex, but it contains many variant readings, alternative spellings, scribal errors, and corrections.
Unlike most of the biblical scrolls from Qumran, it exhibits a very full orthography (spelling), revealing how Hebrew was pronounced in the Second Temple Period.