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Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures.James Mc Keen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work.Some psychometric researchers focus on the construction and validation of assessment instruments such as questionnaires, tests, raters' judgments, and personality tests.Others focus on research relating to measurement theory (e.g., item response theory; intraclass correlation). Psychometricians usually possess a specific qualification, and most are psychologists with advanced graduate training.Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are important domains of scientific psychology.Much of the early theoretical and applied work in psychometrics was undertaken in an attempt to measure intelligence.Psychological testing has come from two streams of thought: the first, from Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences, and the second, from Herbart, Weber, Fechner, and Wundt and their psychophysical measurements of a similar construct.The second set of individuals and their research is what has led to the development of experimental psychology, and standardized testing.
They need not worry about the mysterious differences between the meaning of measurement in the two sciences. 49) These divergent responses are reflected in alternative approaches to measurement.The definition of measurement in the social sciences has a long history.A currently widespread definition, proposed by Stanley Smith Stevens (1946), is that measurement is "the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to some rule." This definition was introduced in the paper in which Stevens proposed four levels of measurement.For example, methods based on covariance matrices are typically employed on the premise that numbers, such as raw scores derived from assessments, are measurements.Such approaches implicitly entail Stevens's definition of measurement, which requires only that numbers are assigned according to some rule.