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Darwin first defined sexual selection early in : “what I call Sexual Selection.

This depends not on a struggle for existence, but on a struggle between the males for the possession of the females; the result is not death to the unsuccessful competitor, but few or no offspring.” (Darwin 1859, p 88).

In his view, where females and males share the same habitat, food sources, predators, and so on, sexually dimorphic characters must have evolved as a result of differential mating success.Of those definitions, 4 involve sexual dimorphism (sex differences) and 2 refer only to males.However, the essence of sexual selection as Darwin defined it is selection through competition for mates.In many simultaneous hermaphrodites, although the sex ratio at mating may be one to one, the actual reproductive sex ratio may also be skewed, creating a high potential for sexual selection.Reproductive biology in hermaphroditic taxa also involves a lot of complexity unknown in dioecious taxa, such as sex change, facultative sex allocation and conditional reciprocity that offers opportunities to enrich our understanding of sexual selection and to test the assumptions and predictions of theory.

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